Economic Incentive Schemes for Improving Availability of Rare Data in Mobile-P2P Networks


Nilesh Padhariya
Anirban Mondal
Sanjay Kumar Madria
Masaru Kitsuregawa


In mobile ad-hoc peer-to-peer (M-P2P) networks, data availability is typically low due to rampant free-riding, frequent network partitioning and mobile resource constraints. Rare data items are those, which get sudden bursts in accesses based on events as they are only hosted by a few peers in comparison to the network size. Thus, they may not be available within few hops of query-issuing peers. This work proposes E-Rare, a novel economic incentive model for improving rare data availability by means of licensing-based replication in M-P2P networks. In E-Rare, each data item is associated with four types of prices (in virtual currency), which provide different rights to the query-issuer concerning the usage of the item. E-Rare requires a query-issuer to pay one of these prices for its queried data item to the query-serving peer, thereby effectively increasing data availability and combating free-riders. The main contributions of this paper are three-fold. First, it provides incentives for replication of rare data items by means of a novel licensing mechanism, thereby improving rare data availability. Second, it provides additional incentives for MPs to collaborate in groups, thereby further improving rare data availability. Third, a detailed performance evaluation has been done to show the improvement in query response times and availability of rare data items in M-P2P networks.


How to Cite
Padhariya, N. ., Mondal, A. ., Madria, S. K. ., & Kitsuregawa, M. . (2017). Economic Incentive Schemes for Improving Availability of Rare Data in Mobile-P2P Networks. International Journal of Next-Generation Computing, 8(1), 01–31.


  1. Ambroszkiewicz, S., Matyja, O., and Penczek, W. 1998. Team Formation by Self-Interested Mobile Agents
  2. Multi-Agent Systems: Theories, Languages and Applications 1544, 1-15.
  3. Bhagwan, R., Moore, D., Savage, S., and Voelker, G. M. 2003. Future directions in distributed computing. A. Schiper, A. A. Shvartsman, H. Weatherspoon, and B. Y. Zhao, Eds. 153-158.
  4. Broch, J., Maltz, D. A., Johnson, D. B., Hu, Y.-C., and Jetcheva, J. 1998. A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols. In Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom). 85-97.
  5. Buttyian, L. and Hubaux, J.-P. 2001. Nuglets: a Virtual Currency to Stimulate Cooperation in Self-Organized Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Technical Report No. DSC/2001/001, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL).
  6. Buttyian, L. and Hubaux, J.-P. 2003. Stimulating cooperation in self-organizing mobile ad hoc networks. Journal of Mobile Networks and Applications 8, 5, 579-592.
  7. Chakravorty, R., Agarwal, S., Banerjee, S., and Pratt, I. 2005. MoB: a mobile bazaar for wide-area wireless services. In Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom). 228-242.
  8. Chen, K. and Nahrstedt, K. 2004. iPass: An Incentive Compatible Auction Scheme to Enable Packet Forwarding Service in MANET. In Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). 534-542.
  9. Crowcroft, J., Gibbens, R., Kelly, F., and Ostring, S. 2003. Modelling Incentives for Collaboration in Mobile Ad hoc Networks. In WiOpt. 427-439.
  10. Daras, P., Palaka, D., Giagourta, V., and Bechtsis, D. 2003. A Novel Peer-to-Peer Payment Protocol. In EUROCON. Vol. 1. 2-6.
  11. Datta, A., Hauswirth, M., and Aberer, K. 2003a. Beyond "Web of trust": enabling P2P e-commerce. In IEEE E-Commerce (ICEC). 303-312.
  12. Datta, A., Hauswirth, M., and Aberer, K. 2003b. Updates in Highly Unreliable, Replicated Peer-to-Peer Systems. In Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). 76-85.
  13. Doriguzzi Corin, R., Russello, G., and Salvadori, E. 2014. Security for Multihop Wireless Networks.
  14. Elrufaie, E. and Turner, D. A. 2004. Bidding in P2P Content Distribution Networks using the Lightweight Currency Paradigm. In Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC). 129-130.
  15. Ferguson, D., Nikolaou, C., and Yemini, Y. 1993. An economy for managing replicated data in autonomous decentralized systems. In Autonomous Decentralized Systems. 367-375.
  16. Ferguson, D., Yemini, Y., and Nikolaou, C. 1988. Microeconomic algorithms for load balancing in distributed computer systems. In Distributed Computing Systems. 491-499.
  17. Figueiredo, D. R., Shapiro, J. K., and Towsley, D. 2004. Payment-based incentives for anonymous peer-topeer systems. In UMass CMPSCI Technical, Report 04:62.
  18. Garyfalos, A. and Almeroth, K. C. 2004. Coupon Based Incentive Systems and the Implications of Equilibrium Theory. In E-Commerce Technology (CEC). 213-220.
  19. Golle, P., Brown, K., and Mironov, I. 2001. Incentives for Sharing in Peer-to-Peer Networks. In Electronic Commerce. 264-267.
  20. Guy, R., Reiher, P., Ratner, D., Gunter, M., Ma, W., and Popek, G. 1998. Rumor: Mobile Data Access Through Optimistic Peer-to-Peer Replication. In ER Workshops. 254-265.
  21. Ham, M. and Agha, G. 2005. ARA: A Robust Audit to Prevent Free-Riding in P2P Networks. In Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P). 125-132.
  22. Hara, T. and Madria, S. 2005. Consistency management among replicas in peer-to-peer mobile ad hoc networks. In Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS). 3-12.
  23. Hara, T. and Madria, S. 2006. Data Replication for Improving Data Accessibility in Ad Hoc Networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (TMC) 5, 11, 1515-1532.
  24. Hsu, H.-H. and Liu, A. 2005. Multiagent-Based Multi-team Formation Control for Mobile Robots. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems 42, 4, 337-360.
  25. Jokela, T. 2003. Authoring tools for mobile multimedia content. In Multimedia and Expo. 637-640.
  26. Kamvar, S., Schlosser, M., and Garcia-Molina, H. 2003. Incentives for Combatting Free-riding on P2P Networks. In Technical report, Stanford University.
  27. Kemme, B. and Alonso, G. 2000. A New Approach to Developing and Implementing Eager Database Replication Protocols. ACM TODS 25, 3, 333-379.
  28. Khan, S., Maciejewski, A., Siegel, H., and Ahmad, I. 2008. A game theoretical data replication technique for mobile ad hoc networks. In Parallel and Distributed Processing. 1-12.
  29. Kremer, S., Markowitch, O., and Zhou, J. 2002. An intensive survey of fair non-repudiation protocols. Journal of Computer Communications 25, 17, 1606-1621.
  30. Kurose, J. F. and Simha, R. 1989. A Microeconomic Approach to Optimal Resource Allocation in Distributed Computer Systems. IEEE Transactions on Computers (TOC) 38, 5, 705-717.
  31. Liebau, N., Darlagiannis, V., Heckmann, O., and Steinmetz, R. 2005. Asymmetric Incentives in Peer-to-Peer Systems. In AMCIS. 260-268.
  32. Liu, J. and Issarny, V. 2004. Service allocation in sel sh mobile ad hoc networks using vickrey auction. In Current Trends in Database Technology (EDBT). 385-394.
  33. Lubke, R., Schuster, D., and Schill, A. 2011. MobilisGroups: Location-based group formation in Mobile Social Networks. In Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops). 502-507.
  34. Mannak, R., de Ridder, H., and Keyson, D. V. 2004. The human side of sharing in peer-to-peer networks. In European Union Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (EUSAI). 59-64.
  35. Mondal, A., Madria, S., and Kitsuregawa, M. 2006a. CADRE: A Collaborative replica allocation and deallocation approach for Mobile-P2P networks. In International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium (IDEAS). 21-28.
  36. Mondal, A., Madria, S., and Kitsuregawa, M. 2006b. CLEAR: An Ecient Context and Location-Based Dynamic Replication Scheme for Mobile-P2P Networks. In Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA). 399-408.
  37. Pongor, G. 1993. OMNeT: Objective Modular Network Testbed. In Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation On Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS). 323-326.
  38. Qureshi, B., Min, G., and Kouvatsos, D. 2010. M-Trust: A Trust Management Scheme for Mobile P2P Networks. In Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). 476-483.
  39. Ramaswamy, L. and Liu, L. 2003. Free riding: a new challenge to peer-to-peer le sharing systems. In System Sciences. 10.
  40. Rathnayake, U., Sivaraman, V., and Boreli, R. 2011. Environmental context aware trust in mobile P2P networks. In Local Computer Networks (LCN). 324-332.
  41. Ratner, D., Reiher, P., Popek, G. J., and Kuenning, G. H. 2001. Replication requirements in mobile environments. Journal of Mobile Networks and Applications 6, 6, 525-533.
  42. Ratsimor, O., Finin, T., Joshi, A., and Yesha, Y. 2003. eNcentive: a framework for intelligent marketing in mobile peer-to-peer environments. In Electronic commerce (ICEC). 87-94.
  43. Richard, B., Nioclais, D. M., and Chalon, D. 2003. Clique: A Transparent, Peer-to-Peer Replicated File System. In Mobile Data Management (MDM). 351-355.
  44. Sabater, J. and Sierra, C. 2005. Review on Computational Trust and Reputation Models. Arti cial Intelligence Review 24, 1, 33-60.
  45. Sakashita, S., Yoshihisa, T., Hara, T., and Nishio, S. 2010. A Data Reception Method to Reduce Interruption Time in P2P Streaming Environments. In Network-Based Information Systems (NBiS). 166-172.
  46. Saroiu, S., Gummadi, P. K., and Gribble, S. D. 2001. Measurement study of peer-to-peer le sharing systems. In Electronic Imaging. 156-170.
  47. Singh, A. and Liu, L. 2003. TrustMe: Anonymous Management of Trust Relationships in Decentralized P2P Systems. In Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P). 142-149.
  48. Srinivasan, V., Nuggehalli, P., Chiasserini, C. F., and Rao, R. 2003. Cooperation in wireless ad hoc networks. In INFOCOM. Vol. 2. 808-817.
  49. Straub, T. and Heinemann, A. 2004. An anonymous bonus point system for mobile commerce based on wordof-mouth recommendation. In ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC). 766-773.
  50. Turner, D. A. and Ross, K. W. 2004. A Lightweight Currency Paradigm for the P2P Resource Market. In Electronic Commerce Research (ECR).
  51. Wolfson, O., Xu, B., and Sistla, A. P. 2004. An Economic Model for Resource Exchange in Mobile Peer to Peer Networks. In Scienti c and Statistical Database Management (SSDBM). 235-244.
  52. Xia, Y. and Prabhakar, S. 2003. Q+Rtree: Ecient Indexing for Moving Object Databases. In Database Systems for Advanced Applications (DASFAA). 175-182.
  53. Xu, B., Wolfson, O., and Rishe, N. 2006. Bene t and Pricing of Spatio-Temporal Information in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks. In System Sciences (HICSS). Vol. 9. 223b-223b.
  54. Xue, Y., Li, B., and Nahrstedt, K. 2006a. Channel-relay price pair: towards arbitrating incentives in wireless ad hoc networks: Research Articles. Journal of Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing - Special Issue on Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 6, 2, 235-245.
  55. Xue, Y., Li, B., and Nahrstedt, K. 2006b. Optimal resource allocation in wireless ad hoc networks: A price-based approach. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 5, 4, 347-364.
  56. Zhong, S., Chen, J., and Yang, Y. R. 2003. Sprite: A simple, cheat-proof, credit-based system for mobile ad-hoc networks. In INFOCOM. Vol. 3. 1987-1997.